Battle of Miccosukee
The battle took place near the
western shore of the lake, the
scene of a massive Seminole
village in 1818.
Swamp at Lake Miccosukee
The swamps around the lake
allowed Seminole warriors to
wage a delaying action.
Battle of Miccosukee - Leon County, Florida - Battle of Miccosukee, Florida - Battle of Miccosukee, Florida
Battle of Miccosukee
On April 1, 1818, U.S. troops led by General
Andrew Jackson attacked Seminole forces led by the
old chief Kenhajo near Lake Miccosukee.
Andrew Jackson in Florida
The Battle of Miccosukee (also called
Mikasuki or any of several other spellings)
was a key action of the First Seminole War of

Fought in eastern Leon County, Florida, just
northeast of
Tallahassee, the battle was a
victory for both the whites and the Indians. It
was considered a victory for the whites
because they captured and destroyed the
major Miccosukee villages, while for the
Indians it was a successful delaying action
that allowed them to evacuate their women
and children.

The First Seminole War developed after U.S.
troops broke a verbal confrontation with
Neamathla, chief of the Lower Creek village
of Fowltown in Southwest Georgia, by
attacking the village on November 21 and
November 23, 1817. The unprovoked attacks
brought an alliance of Creek and Seminole
warriors into war against the United States.

The Indian alliance retaliated with
Massacre and the Battle of Ocheesee on the
Apalachicola River and by attacking Fort Scott
and Fort Hughes in Georgia.

Outraged by these attacks, which they
believed were unwarranted, U.S. officials
ordered General Andrew Jackson to the
frontier with an army of regular and militia
troops. Jackson invaded Spanish Florida in
March of 1818, pushing down the
Apalachicola River to the site of the old
"Negro Fort," where he built Fort Gadsden.
Using the new outpost as a base for his
movements, he turned northeast through
today's Apalachicola National Forest in a
drive for the towns of Miccosukee and
Tallahassee Talofa in what is now Leon

Tallahassee Talofa was found abandoned
on March 31, 1818, and was burned by
Jackson's forces. The next day he pushed on
for Miccosukee, considered the largest and
most influential town in the region.

The Miccosukee towns comprised a massive
settlement that stretched for ten miles up and
down the western shore of Lake Miccosukee.
Home to thousands of Native Americans and
hundreds of warriors, they were the seat of
power for Kenhega (Kenhajo), considered
the principal chief of the Seminoles at that

Despite the size of the Miccosukee towns,
the warriors there knew they were severely
outnumbered by Jackson's army, which now
included more than 3,000 men. As the
Indians detected the army's approach, they
began a mass evacuation of their women,
children and elderly. At the same time, a part
of warriors moved out to fight a delaying
action against the oncoming soldiers.
Taking a position on a point of land in a
pond, the warriors waited for Jackson to
attack. The U.S. officers quickly formed a
regiment of Tennessee militia and a large
force of Creek volunteers into a line of battle.
A sharp contest resulted, but the Miccosukee
warriors began to retreat as part of the U.S.
force moved to flank their position.

The battle now degenerated into a wild
pursuit through the houses of the town, but
most of the warriors escaped. The final tally
of the battle was 1 Tennessean and 14
Indians killed.

The soldiers quickly occupied Miccosukee,
rounding up hundreds of head of cattle and
destroying over 300 houses. They also found
a tall pole bearing hundreds of scalps. Some
were old, the trophies of previous wars, but
others were fresh.

After destroying Miccosukee, Jackson and
his army turned south to the Gulf and
Marcos de Apalache (Fort St. Marks).

The exact site of the Battle of Miccosukee is
not known, but the Indian village stretched
along virtually the entire west side of the lake.
Traces of historic Indian presence have been
found at nearby
Letchworth-Love Mounds
Archaeological State Park. The best place to
view the entire lake is from a boardwalk
along U.S. 90 at its southern end.
Letchworth-Love Mounds
Traces of Seminole presence
have been found on the
grounds of nearby Letchworth-
Love Mounds Archaeological
State Park.
Lake Miccosukee
A boardwalk along U.S. 90 at
the southern end of the lake
provides an outstanding view
of the beautiful body of water.
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Copyright 2011 by Dale Cox
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