Battle of Horseshoe Bend - Andrew Jackson's Report - Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Alabama
The following is excerpted from Andrew Jackson's official report of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. This was
written on the battlefield on March 28, 1814, to Major General Thomas Pinckney, Jackson's commanding officer
in the South.

"...It is difficult to conceive a situation more eligible for defence than the one they had chosen, or one rendered more
secure by the skill with which they had erected their breast work, it was from five to eight feet high, and extended
across the point in such a direction, as that a force approaching it, would be exposed to a double fire while they lay in
perfect security behind. A cannon planted at one extremity could have raked it to no advantage.

"Determining to exterminate them, I detached Genl. Coffee & nearly the whole of the Indian force, early on the morning
of yesterday to cross the river about two miles below their encampment, & to surround the bend in such a manner, as
that none of them should escape by attempting to cross the river; With the infantry I proceeded slowly & in order along
the point of land which led to the front of their breast work. Having planted my cannon (one six & one three pounder on
an eminence at the distance of one hundred & fifty to two hundred yds from it, I opened a very brisk fire, playin upon
the enemy with the musquetry & rifles whenever they shewed themselves beyond it. This was kept up with short
interruptions for about two hours, when a part of the Indian force * Capn. Russels & Lt Beans companies of Spies,
who had accompanied Genl. Coffee crossed over in canoes to the extremity of the bend & set fire to a few of the
buildings which were there situated, they then advanced with great gallantry towards the breast work & commenced a
spirited fire upon the enemy behind it. Finding that this force, not withstanding the bravery they displayed was wholly
insufficient to dislodge them, and that Genl. Coffee had entirely secured the opposite banks of the river, I now
determined to take their works by storm. The men by whom this was to be effected, had been waiting with impatience
to receive the order, & hailed it with acclamation. The spirit which animated them was a sure augury of the success
which was to follow, the history of warfare furnishes few instances of a more brilliant attack. The Regulars led on by
their skillful & intrepid commander Col Williams & by the gallant Major Montgomery soon gained possession of the
works in the midst of a most tremendous fire from behind them. The militia of the venerable Genl Doherty's brigade
accompanied them in the charge, which a vivacity & firmness which would have done honor to Regulars. The enemy
were compleatly routed. Five hundred & fifty seven were left dead upon the peninsula, & a great number were killed by
the horsemen; It is believed that not more than 20 have escaped; The fighting continued with some severity for five
hours, but we continued to destroy many of them until we were prevented by the night; This morning we killed sixteen
who had lain concealed. We took about two hundred & fifty prisoners all women & children except two or three

"Our loss is 106 wounded and twenty six killed Major McIntosh (the Coweta) who joined the army with a part of his
tribe greatly distinguished himself.... The power fo the creeks is I think forever broken...."
From the National Archives
Records Group 107
Copyright 2009 by Dale Cox
All rights reserved.