Seminole Wars 200th Anniversary Timeline

Neamathla (Eneah Emathla) was the principal chief of Fowltown. The Seminole War started in his village on November 21-23 1817.

The 200th anniversary of the Seminole Wars is now underway.

This series of conflicts took place in Florida, Georgia and Alabama from 1817-1858. The combat phase of the Seminole War began with the Battle of Fowltown in Decatur County, Georgia, on November 21-23, 1817 and continued until the conflict was “declared” over by Col. Gustavus Loomis on May 8, 1858. No peace treaty was reached at the time, however, and the Native Americans did not reestablish formal relations with the United States until the Seminole Tribe of Florida did so in 1957 and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida followed in 1962.

Most historians regard the long war as three separate conflicts: The First Seminole War (1817-1818), The Second Seminole War (1835-1842) and the Third Seminole War (1856-1858). Many Native Americans, however, consider it to have been a single conflict with occasional breaks in the fighting.

To commemorate this brutal time in American history and to remember those who suffered and died on both sides, we are publishing a continuing series of articles about the Seminole War and the events leading to it. You can access these stories by following the links below

NEW: A Maryland governor’s son is laid to rest in Georgia

Chronological List of Articles:

July 27, 1816:  The Fort at Prospect Bluff (“Negro Fort”)

January 1817:  Seminole and Creek warriors burn Fort Scott, Georgia

April 1817:  Troops prepare for march to Fort Scott

May 9, 1817:  Neamathla stands his ground

June 5, 1817:  U.S. troops return to Fort Scott

July 5, 1817:  Violence surges on the Florida-Georgia border

July 6, 1817:  Arbuthnot and Francis arrive in Florida

July 7, 1817:  Blockhouses on the Choctawhatchee and Yellow Water Rivers

July 9, 1817:  “They shall receive a full portion of its evils”

July 11, 1817:  Georgia authorizes its militia to attack

August 3, 1817:   Neamathla warns the U.S. Army

August 4, 1817:  The Fort Scott Council of 1817

August 13, 1817:  “They’d cry out I was a savage”

September 6, 1817:  A demand at Miccosukee

September 11, 1817:  Miccosukee stands firm

September 13, 1817:  Suwannee Old Town

October 11, 1817:  Ships ordered to Apalachicola Bay

November 5, 1817:  “Nothing but the application of force”

November 8, 1817:  Fowltown: The village on Four Mile Creek

November 12, 1817:  “Retain some of them as hostages”

November 15, 1817:  U.S. troops march down Three Notch Road

November 16, 1817:  Soldiers cross future site of Blakely, Georgia

November 17, 1817:  Army column reaches Iron City, Georgia

November 18, 1817:  Troops reach Spring Creek

November 20, 1817:  The March to Fowltown

November 21, 1817:  The Battle of Fowltown: Day One

November 22, 1817:  The Battle of Fowltown: Day Two

November 23, 1817:  The Battle of Fowltown: Day Three

November 24, 1817:  The Building of Fort Hughes

November 26, 1817:  Prelude to a Disaster

November 30, 1817:  Bloodiest U.S. Defeat of the First Seminole War

December 4, 1817:  Aftermath of the attack on Scott’s Command

December 8, 1817:  “A Constant and Tremendous Firing”

December 10, 1817:  “The shock of an Earthquake was distinctly felt”

December 11, 1817:  Emissaries from the Red Sticks

December 12, 1817:  The Black Seminoles of 1817

December 13, 1817:  The Killing of Chief Perryman at Spanish Bluff

December 15, 1817:  The Battle of Ocheesee Bluff

December 16, 1817:  Two Battles shake the Frontier

December 18, 1817:  Fighting continues on the Apalachicola River

December 18, 1817:  Fort Hughes is Evacuated

December 19, 1817:  “Something should have been done immediately”

December 20, 1817:  Our situation is really an alarming one”

December 27, 1817:  Andrew Jackson ordered to the Florida frontier

December 29, 1817:  Last Day of the Battle of Ocheesee Bluff

December 30, 1817:  Georgia troops move to build Fort Early

December 31: 1817:  New Year’s Eve raid on the St. Marys

January 4, 1818:  The Destruction of Fowltown and Attapulgus

January 6, 1818:  “We are now on half rations”

January 8, 1818:  A Red Stick Chief describes the Battle of New Orleans

January 11, 1818:  “Thirty head of poor cows”

January 12, 1818:  Attack near Fort Gaines, Georgia

January 13, 1818:  Andrew Jackson plans to invade Florida

January 14, 1818:  More fighting on the Apalachicola

January 16, 1818:  Saving the corn at Fort Gaines

January 19, 1818:  Attack on the Satilla River

January 20, 1818:  Jackson warns Gaines to avoid battle with the Seminoles

January 22, 1818:  Attack near Fort Early, Georgia

January 28, 1818:  The war spreads west to Blakeley & Mobile

January 30, 1818: “The continued aggression of the Americans”

January 31, 1818: The Georgia militia abandons the frontier

February 2, 1818: The Breaking of Yellow Hair

February 9, 1818: Two killed in attack at Fort Scott

February 13, 1818: “Nearly scared them to Death”

February 15, 1818: “Scarcely room to swing a cat”

February 16, 1818: Keelboat building on the Georgia frontier

February 17, 1818: Maj. Woodward’s desperate march to Fort Gaines

February 18, 1818: Soldiers make wild keelboat run down the Chattahoochee

February 19: 1818: Jackson’s 1818 Campaign began 200 years ago today

February 20, 1818: Attack on the Old Federal Road

February 21, 1818: “The conduct of the Ufala King is very suspicious”

February 22, 1818: Voyage of doom on the Flint

February 23, 1818: U.S. Army meets disaster on the Flint River

February 25, 1818: Sea of mud slows pace of Jackson’s advance

February 26, 1818: Andrew Jackson reaches the Flint River

February 27, 1818: Crossing the Flint River like the “Isarelites of old”

February 28, 1818: Soldiers reach the Chehaw towns

March 1, 1818: “We had a rough time of it that night”

March 3, 1818: “That night it snowed, the next day it was very cold”

March 4,1818: The rescue of Gen. Edmund P. Gaines

March 5, 1818: “Many are the disappointments we have met with”

March 6, 1818: Captured warriors executed at Fort Gaines, Georgia

March 8, 1818: Jackson’s army reaches Bainbridge vicinity

March 9, 1818: Starving American army reaches Fort Scott

March 10, 1818: Jackson crosses the Flint River at Fort Scott

March 11, 1818: Andrew Jackson Invades Florida

March 12, 1818: The Battle of the Upper Chipola

March 13, 1818: Jackson’s army is saved at the Garden of Eden

March 14, 1818: The war spreads to Alabama

March 15, 1818: Remains of Fort Hughes found in Bainbridge, Georgia

March 16, 1818: Andrew Jackson reaches the “Negro Fort” at Prospect Bluff

March 17, 1818: Examining the ruins of the “Negro Fort”

March 19, 1818: Gen. Homer V. Milton’s Wild Ride

March 20, 1818: A new attack in Alabama

March 21: 1818: Gunboat No. 149 returns to scene of deadliest cannon shot in U.S. history

March 22, 1818: 200th anniversary of the building of Fort Gadsden

March 25, 1818: Andrew Jackson asks the U.S. Navy to join his campaign

March 26, 1818: Jackson marches for Tallahassee Talofa and Miccosukee

March 27, 1818: Milly Francis and Duncan McCrimmon

March 28, 1818: Jackson’s army marches northeast through the Apalachicola National Forest

March 29, 1818: The army reaches the Ochlockonee

March 30, 1818: Maj. David E. Twiggs and the night march to Tallahassee

March 31, 1818: Andrew Jackson burns Tallahassee to the ground

April 1, 1818: The Battle of Miccosukee

April 2, 1818: Fighting near Monticello, Florida

April 3, 1818: Capture of the Prophet Francis at St. Marks, Florida

April 4, 1818: Miccosukee: The looting and burning of Florida’s largest town

April 5, 1818: Human scalps and the march to St. Marks

April 6, 1818: Jackson demands the surrender of San Marcos de Apalache at St. Marks, Florida

April 7, 1818: U.S. troops storm San Marcos de Apalache

April 8, 1818: Jackson hangs the Prophet Francis and Homathlemico

April 9, 1818: The army marches for the Suwannee River

April 10, 1818: American soldiers on the Old Spanish Trail

April 11, 1818: Eve of the Battle of the Econfina

April 12, 1818: The Battle of the Econfina: Massacre in Florida’s Big Bend

April 13, 1818: Elizabeth Stewart & Osceola: Aftermath of the Battle of Econfina

April 14, 1818: The army fires on Seminole women and children

April 15, 1818: The army crosses Steinhatchee Falls

April 16, 1818: The Battle of Old Town: Fight at the Suwannee River

April 17, 1818: The capture of Robert Ambrister

April 18, 1818: Raids across and down the Suwannee River

April 20, 1818: The Burning of the Suwannee Old Towns

April 22, 1818: The “Big Chill” of 1818 hits North Florida

April 23, 1818: The Chehaw Massacre: Georgia troops attack a peaceful village

April 24, 1818: U.S. troops on the Escambia River

April 25, 1818: The Battle of Bayou Texar at Pensacola, Florida

April 26, 1818: Trials of Arbuthnot & Ambrister at St. Marks, Day 1

April 27, 1818: Arbuthnot & Ambrister Trials at St. Marks, Day 2

April 28, 1818: Guilty verdicts in the Arbuthnot & Ambrister trials

April 29, 1818: Meet the Grim Monster: The Executions of Arbuthnot & Ambrister

April 30, 1818: Naval operations continue on the Gulf Coast

May 1, 1818: “Much reduced and apparently perfectly wild”

May 2, 1818: “The cavalry rushed forward and commenced the massacre”

May 3, 1818: Were Spanish soldiers wearing clothing taken from Lt. Scott’s command?

May 5, 1818: Andrew Jackson decides to march on Pensacola

May 7, 1818: Old Hickory erupts over news of the Chehaw Massacre

May 9, 1818: The army reaches Rock Bluff in Liberty County, Florida

May 10, 1818: Across the Apalachicola at Ocheesee Bluff

May 11, 1818: The army camps at Blue Springs near Marianna, Florida

May 12, 1818: The crossing of the Chipola River at Florida Caverns State Park

May 13, 1818: Jackson’s army camps on Holmes Creek

May 14, 1818: The army reaches the Choctawhatchee River in Holmes County, Florida

May 15, 1818: Andrew Jackson crosses the Choctawhatchee River

May 16, 1818: Jackson’s army marches west through Holmes & Walton Counties

May 17, 1818: The army at Natural Bridge & Lake Jackson in northern Walton County

May 18, 1818: Across the Yellow River in Okaloosa County, Florida

May 19, 1818: The army marches through Santa Rosa County, Florida

May 20, 1818: Jackson’s army reaches Escambia Bay

May 21, 1818: American forces converge on Pensacola

May 22, 1818: “You will be responsible before God & Men”

May 23, 1818: U.S. troops occupy Fort San Miguel

May 24, 2018: Andrew Jackson captures Pensacola, Florida

May 25, 1818: Jackson demands the surrender of the Barrancas

May 26, 1818: The Battle for Fort San Carlos de Barrancas

May 27, 1818: “The firing from both sides was intense”

May 28, 1818: Surrender of Fort San Carlos de Barrancas

May 29, 1818: Chaos in Georgia over the man behind a massacre

May 30, 1818: Jackson leaves Pensacola but the war goes on

May 31, 1818: “Putting to death every hostile warrior found

June 1, 1818: Georgia’s governor defiant over Chehaw Massacre

June 2, 1818: Andrew Jackson declares an end to the Creek & Seminole Wars

June 8, 1818: Piracy surges due to Jackson’s campaign

June 13, 1818: Holmes, Econchattimico & Mico Decoxey: West Florida’s Last Red Sticks

June 14, 1818: The killing of Mico Decoxey

June 17, 1818: A Maryland governor’s son is laid to rest in Georgia

Coming Tomorrow: Slaughter of Muscogee families in South Alabama


Future articles will be added to this chronological list as they are published so bookmark this page and check back often!

To learn more about the Seminole War, also enjoy these free video presentations from Two Egg TV: